If absent from class watch the movie at this sight:
|Mr. Goudy's Classroom||
Movie about the Gideon v. Wainwright court case
If absent from class watch the movie at this sight:
Gideon's Trumpet Summary & Study Guide:www.bookrags.com/studyguide-gideons-trumpet/#gsc.tab=0
American Government CONTENT STATEMENTS:
1. Opportunities for civic engagement with the structures of government are made possible through political and public policy processes.
2. Political parties, interest groups and the media provide opportunities for civic involvement through various means.
3. Issues can be analyzed through the critical use of information from public records, surveys, research data and policy positions of advocacy groups.
4. The processes of persuasion, compromise, consensus building and negotiation contribute to the resolution of conflicts and differences.
5. As the supreme law of the land, the U.S. Constitution incorporates basic principles which help define the government of the United States as a federal republic including its structure, powers and relationship with the governed.
6. The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers framed the national debate over the basic principles of government encompassed by the Constitution of the United States.
7. Constitutional government in the United States has changed over time as a result of amendments to the U.S. Constitution, Supreme Court decisions, legislation and informal practices.
8. The Bill of Rights was drafted in response to the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States.
9. The Reconstruction Era prompted Amendments 13 through 15 to address the aftermath of slavery and the Civil War.
10. Amendments 16 through 19 responded to calls for reform during the Progressive Era.
11. Four amendments have provided for extensions of suffrage to disenfranchised groups.
12. Five amendments have altered provisions for presidential election, terms, and succession to address changing historical circumstances.
13. Amendments 11, 21 and 27 have addressed unique historical circumstances.
14. Law and public policy are created and implemented by three branches of government; each functions with its own set of powers and responsibilities.
15. The political process creates a dynamic interaction among the three branches of government in addressing current issues.
16. In the United States, people have rights which protect them from undue governmental interference. Rights carry responsibilities which help define how people use their rights and which require respect for the rights of others.
17. Historically, the United States has struggled with majority rule and the extension of minority rights. As a result of this struggle, the government has increasingly extended civil rights to marginalized groups and broadened opportunities for participation.
18. The Ohio Constitution was drafted in 1851 to address difficulties in governing the state of Ohio.
19. As a framework for the state, the Ohio Constitution complements the federal structure of government in the United States.
20. Individuals in Ohio have a responsibility to assist state and local governments as they address relevant and often controversial problems that directly affect their communities.
21. A variety of entities within the three branches of government, at all levels, address public policy issues which arise in domestic and international affairs.
22. Individuals and organizations play a role within federal, state and local governments in helping to determine public (domestic and foreign) policy.
23. The federal government uses spending and tax policy to maintain economic stability and foster economic growth. Regulatory actions carry economic costs and benefits.
24. The Federal Reserve System uses monetary tools to regulate the nation’s money supply and moderate the effects of expansion and contraction in the economy.
State practice test: oh.portal.airast.org/users/students-and-families.stml
Quizlet State Practice: quizlet.com/111679286/ohio-government-air-test-study-flash-cards/
Review the 27 Amendments: quizlet.com/100409905/flashcards
In Plain English Making Sense of the Federal Reserve: www.stlouisfed.org/in-plain-english/introduction
Be the Chair of the Federal Reserve play this game to see how you would do: www.frbsf.org/education/teacher-resources/chair-federal-reserve-economy-simulation-game/
Article on what the Federal Reserve is and How it works (click the link to read):www.thebalance.com/the-federal-reserve-system-and-its-function-3306001
What is the Federal Reserve?
The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. It performs five general functions to promote the effective operation of the U.S. economy and, more generally, the public interest. The Federal Reserve
Video explaining the Federal Reserve: www.youtube.com/watch?v=y1OJlJ9COg0
What's all the Yellen About? Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Crash Course Economics #10: www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dq7mMort9o
Monetary and Fiscal Policy: Crash Course Government and Politics #48:www.youtube.com/watch?v=_tULRch1PRQ
The Federal Reserve Act Explained:www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq1N8fG5Uww
The Fed Explains Monetary Policy:www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOfQPn9Jwpo
Click on the following links to review for the Chapter 25
• What are the major Federal and State limits on raising revenue?
• What are the four principles of sound taxation?
• What are the major tax and nontax sources of State and local revenue?
• How can we describe the State budget process?
Limits on Raising Revenue
States cannot raise revenue from:
• interstate and foreign commerce
• the Federal Government and its agencies
• any unfairly imposed or administered tax
• taxes that require confiscated property
• taxes imposed for other than public purposes
State constitutions limit the State and
local taxing powers.
• Most constitutions create tax exempt groups.
• State codes often set maximum rates for levies.
• Some taxes are prohibited.
The Principles of Sound Taxation
• Subjects contribute in proportion to their abilities.
• Taxes are certain and not arbitrary.
• Taxes are levied at a time and in a manner convenient to the contributor.
• Taxes should not take much more money from the people than government needs.
Sources of Revenue
See above picture on sources of Revenue
The Budget Process
• Each agency prepares estimates of its needs for the upcoming year.
• Estimates are reviewed by an executive budget agency.
• The revised estimates and supporting information are presented as the governor’s budget.
• The budget is considered part by part, funds are appropriated, and revenue measures passed by the legislature.
• The governor supervises the execution of the budget approved by the legislature.
• The execution of the budget is checked independently by auditors.
• What are the reasons for America’s shift from a rural to an urban society?
• How are cities incorporated, and what is the function of city charters?
• What are the major forms of city government?
• Why is city planning necessary?
• What challenges face the suburbs and metropolitan areas?
America’s Rural-Urban Shift
• In 1790, 5.1 percent of the population lived in cities.
• The Industrial Revolution caused many people to move to urban centers.
• Farms became mechanized and fewer people grew more food.
• By 1900, two-fifths of the nation’s people lived in urban areas
• By 1920, more than half of the population were city dwellers.
• Today, over 75 percent live in cities and suburbs.
• Consequently, the strain on local governments to provide services to their populations has grown.
Incorporation is the process by which a State establishes a city as a legal body.
A charter is the city’s basic law, its constitution.
• Most cities have a planning agency that consists of a planning commission supported by a professional staff.
• Most federal grant and loan programs require a master plan for future growth.
• Zoning is the practice of dividing a city into districts and regulating property uses.
• The three uses are generally residential, commercial, and industrial.
• Each zone is then subdivided. Residential zones may be subdivided into single-family, two family, and multifamily units.
• Zoning may also determine height and area limits for buildings.
• Zoning ordinances must be reasonable.
Suburbs and Metropolitan Areas
The Suburb Boom
• About half of all Americans live in suburbs.
• Suburbs grew rapidly after World War II.
• Americans wanted more room, cheaper land, privacy, and less pollution and congestion.
• Businesses moved to the suburbs for cheaper land, lower taxes, and a stable labor supply.
• The move to the suburbs made many urban areas less financially stable and socially inclusive.
• Some suburbs have difficulty meeting the service needs of their residents.
• Metropolitan areas have been created that annex outlying areas.
• Special districts are created that cross the boundaries of county and city lines.
• Why do State governments have a major role in providing important services?
• What types of services do State and local governments provide?
• Why do the amount and types of services available to citizens vary greatly from State to
State Government’s Role
• The U.S. Constitution reserves to the States all the powers not expressly delegated to
Congress and not specifically denied to the States.
• State responsibilities are to "establish Justice, ensure domestic Tranquility, provide
for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of
State and Local Services
Money spent on things like: Education, Public Welfare, Public Safety, Highways, Solid Waste and Sewage, Housing, Parks and Recreation and Natural Resources
Variations in Services
• State and local governments vary in the amount and types of services they offer according to the degree of urbanization.
• They also vary according to physical geography (energy supplies, agricultural resources, and proximity to transportation networks and major markets).
Icivics play the "Counties Work" game to learn more about what counties do for you and me: www.icivics.org/games/counties-work
- What are some differences among counties?
- How are county governments structured?
- What are the functions of counties?
- Which aspects of county government need reform?
- How can we describe the governments of towns, townships, and special districts?
• A county is a major unit of local government in most States.
• The function of counties varies from State to State.
• They may share the functions of local government or be the major units of government for rural areas.
• Counties vary widely in area and population.
The most common functions of counties are:
• to keep the peace and maintain jails and other correctional facilities
• to asses property for taxes
• to collect taxes and spend county funds
• to build and repair roads, bridges, drains, and other such public works
• to maintain schools
Towns, Townships, and Special Districts
• In New England and elsewhere, the town or township is a major unit of local government and delivers most services.
• The main feature is the town or township meeting, which is open to all of the town’s eligible voters. It meets regularly to levy taxes, make spending and other policy decisions, and elect officers.
• Between town meetings, a small governing body manages the town’s business.
• Special Districts also exist across the country. Most of them are school districts.
• Special districts provide a service in a wider or smaller area than is covered by a county or city.