|Mr. Goudy's Classroom||
Click on the following links to review for the Chapter 25
• What are the major Federal and State limits on raising revenue?
• What are the four principles of sound taxation?
• What are the major tax and nontax sources of State and local revenue?
• How can we describe the State budget process?
Limits on Raising Revenue
States cannot raise revenue from:
• interstate and foreign commerce
• the Federal Government and its agencies
• any unfairly imposed or administered tax
• taxes that require confiscated property
• taxes imposed for other than public purposes
State constitutions limit the State and
local taxing powers.
• Most constitutions create tax exempt groups.
• State codes often set maximum rates for levies.
• Some taxes are prohibited.
The Principles of Sound Taxation
• Subjects contribute in proportion to their abilities.
• Taxes are certain and not arbitrary.
• Taxes are levied at a time and in a manner convenient to the contributor.
• Taxes should not take much more money from the people than government needs.
Sources of Revenue
See above picture on sources of Revenue
The Budget Process
• Each agency prepares estimates of its needs for the upcoming year.
• Estimates are reviewed by an executive budget agency.
• The revised estimates and supporting information are presented as the governor’s budget.
• The budget is considered part by part, funds are appropriated, and revenue measures passed by the legislature.
• The governor supervises the execution of the budget approved by the legislature.
• The execution of the budget is checked independently by auditors.
• Why do State governments have a major role in providing important services?
• What types of services do State and local governments provide?
• Why do the amount and types of services available to citizens vary greatly from State to
State Government’s Role
• The U.S. Constitution reserves to the States all the powers not expressly delegated to
Congress and not specifically denied to the States.
• State responsibilities are to "establish Justice, ensure domestic Tranquility, provide
for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of
State and Local Services
Money spent on things like: Education, Public Welfare, Public Safety, Highways, Solid Waste and Sewage, Housing, Parks and Recreation and Natural Resources
Variations in Services
• State and local governments vary in the amount and types of services they offer according to the degree of urbanization.
• They also vary according to physical geography (energy supplies, agricultural resources, and proximity to transportation networks and major markets).
• What are the reasons for America’s shift from a rural to an urban society?
• How are cities incorporated, and what is the function of city charters?
• What are the major forms of city government?
• Why is city planning necessary?
• What challenges face the suburbs and metropolitan areas?
America’s Rural-Urban Shift
• In 1790, 5.1 percent of the population lived in cities.
• The Industrial Revolution caused many people to move to urban centers.
• Farms became mechanized and fewer people grew more food.
• By 1900, two-fifths of the nation’s people lived in urban areas
• By 1920, more than half of the population were city dwellers.
• Today, over 75 percent live in cities and suburbs.
• Consequently, the strain on local governments to provide services to their populations has grown.
Incorporation is the process by which a State establishes a city as a legal body.
A charter is the city’s basic law, its constitution.
• Most cities have a planning agency that consists of a planning commission supported by a professional staff.
• Most federal grant and loan programs require a master plan for future growth.
• Zoning is the practice of dividing a city into districts and regulating property uses.
• The three uses are generally residential, commercial, and industrial.
• Each zone is then subdivided. Residential zones may be subdivided into single-family, two family, and multifamily units.
• Zoning may also determine height and area limits for buildings.
• Zoning ordinances must be reasonable.
Suburbs and Metropolitan Areas
The Suburb Boom
• About half of all Americans live in suburbs.
• Suburbs grew rapidly after World War II.
• Americans wanted more room, cheaper land, privacy, and less pollution and congestion.
• Businesses moved to the suburbs for cheaper land, lower taxes, and a stable labor supply.
• The move to the suburbs made many urban areas less financially stable and socially inclusive.
• Some suburbs have difficulty meeting the service needs of their residents.
• Metropolitan areas have been created that annex outlying areas.
• Special districts are created that cross the boundaries of county and city lines.
Icivics play the "Counties Work" game to learn more about what counties do for you and me: www.icivics.org/games/counties-work
- What are some differences among counties?
- How are county governments structured?
- What are the functions of counties?
- Which aspects of county government need reform?
- How can we describe the governments of towns, townships, and special districts?
• A county is a major unit of local government in most States.
• The function of counties varies from State to State.
• They may share the functions of local government or be the major units of government for rural areas.
• Counties vary widely in area and population.
The most common functions of counties are:
• to keep the peace and maintain jails and other correctional facilities
• to asses property for taxes
• to collect taxes and spend county funds
• to build and repair roads, bridges, drains, and other such public works
• to maintain schools
Towns, Townships, and Special Districts
• In New England and elsewhere, the town or township is a major unit of local government and delivers most services.
• The main feature is the town or township meeting, which is open to all of the town’s eligible voters. It meets regularly to levy taxes, make spending and other policy decisions, and elect officers.
• Between town meetings, a small governing body manages the town’s business.
• Special Districts also exist across the country. Most of them are school districts.
• Special districts provide a service in a wider or smaller area than is covered by a county or city.
Click on the following web site for practice test http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?wcprefix=mqa&wcsuffix=7246&area=view&x=0&y=0
Click on the following link for flashcards http://quizlet.com/5274937/magruders-american-government-chapter-24-flash-cards/
•How are State courts organized?
•What kind of work does each type of State court do?
•What are the different ways that State judges are selected?
Organization of State Courts
•Justices of the peace preside over minor offenses in rural areas.
•Magistrates handle minor civil complaints in urban areas.
•Municipal courts hear civil cases involving several thousands of dollars and misdemeanors.
•Juvenile courts decide cases for individuals under 18 years of age.
•General trial courts try the more important civil and criminal cases.
•Intermediate appellate courts are courts of appeal between trial courts and the State’s supreme court.
•State supreme courts review the decisions of lower courts.
•Unified court systems are based on geographic area and cover all areas of the law.
Selection of Judges
Most often, judges are selected by:
•Popular vote, (Ohio votes on Judges)
•Governor appointment, or
Questions from class:
1. What is constitutional law?
2. What is statutory law?
3. What is administrative law?
4. What is common law?
5. What is equity?
6. What are the two kinds of crimes?
7. What is civil law?
8. What is the function of a grand jury?
9. How has the makeup of petit juries changed over the years?
10. How are members of a petit jury chosen?
In the Courtroom
Kinds of Laws in State Courts
1. constitutional law
- body of law based on the U.S. and state constitutions and judicial interpretations of them
2. statutory law
- body of law based on statutes enacted by legislative bodies
3. administrative law
- rules, orders, and regulations issued by executive branches of government
4. common law
- the unwritten, judge-made law that has developed over the centuries
- body of law that provides remedies for wrongs before they occur
Criminal and Civil Law
Two Kinds of Crimes
- serious crimes
- lesser offenses
What is civil law?
Disputes between individuals and between individuals and governments
What does a grand jury do?
They determine whether the facts of a case warrant bringing a criminal case to trial
How have petit juries changed over the years?
They used to be all men (12)
Now they are men & women and may only be 6 in number
How are petit jury members chosen?
They are selected from various lists of citizens in a community
Precedents & Common Law
What is a precedent and what part does it play in common law?
Following precedent is abiding by earlier court decisions as they have been handed down over the years by judges
Precedents create a body of law known as common law
Questions from class:
1. How can a governor be removed from office?
2. What executive powers do most governors possess?
3. What is the pocket veto? The item veto? Which of these two powers is a governor more likely to have?
4. Briefly explain these judicial powers of a governor: clemency, pardon, commutation, reprieve, and parole.
5. Should the governor of your State be able to appoint those other executive officers now chosen by the voters? Why or why not?
6. Compare and contrast the usual powers of the governor with those of the President.
The Governor and State Administration
Powers of The Governor
1. Appointment and removal of key assistants
2. Supervise staffs of executive branch
3. prepare and submit budget
4. commander in chief of State National Guard
1. recommend legislation
2. call special sessions of legislature
3. veto bills
- to postpone a sentence
- Release a person of legal consequences of a crime
- Release a prisoner short of the completion of their sentence
- to reduce a sentence
Governor DeWine home page click on the link http://www.governor.ohio.gov/
Recall process in Ohio:ballotpedia.org/Laws_governing_recall_in_Ohio
Veto power in Ohio:info.cq.com/resources/state-by-state-guide-to-gubernatorial-veto-types/