•Why and how are executive agreements made?
•What purpose does the power of recognition have?
•What powers does the President have in the role of commander in chief?
The Power to Make Treaties
•A treaty is a formal agreement between two or more sovereign states.
•The President, usually through the secretary of state, negotiates these international agreements.
•All treaties must pass approval by a two thirds of the members present vote in the Senate.
•An executive agreement is a pact between the President and the head of a foreign state, or a subordinate.
•Unlike treaties, executive agreements do not require Senate consent.
The Power of Recognition
The power of recognition is exercised when the President, acting for the United States, acknowledges the legal existence of another sovereign state.
•The President may show American displeasure with the conduct of another country by asking for the recall of that nation’s ambassador or other diplomatic representatives in this country. •The official is declared to be persona non grata, or an unwelcome person.
Commander in Chief
The Constitution makes the President the commander in chief of the nation’s armed forces.
Making Undeclared War
•Many Presidents have used the armed forces abroad without a declaration of war. Wartime Powers
•The President’s powers as commander in chief are far greater during a war than they are in normal times.
The War Powers Resolution
•The War Powers Resolution of 1973 limits the President’s war-making powers.
The President's military powers
a. are strictly limited to times of war.
b. are shared with Congress.
c. only apply to the use of the United States Army and its weapons.
d. may never be used to keep the domestic peace.
The difference between a treaty and an executive agreement is that
a. a treaty is with a foreign state but an executive agreement is domestic.
b. a treaty must begin in the Senate but an executive agreement is made wholly by the President.
c. the President needs Senate approval for a treaty but not for an executive agreement.
d. a treaty ends or prevents a war but an executive agreement does not.
The President has the power to make executive agreements
a. that are based only on legislation already passed.
b. with the consent of two-thirds of the Senate.
c. only a dozen times each year.
d. without any congressional action or approval.
Answers: B / C / D