• Why does the government create independent
• What are the characteristics of independent
executive agencies and independent regulatory
• How are government corporations structured?
Why does the government create independent
The independent agencies are created by Congress and located outside the executive departments. Independent agencies have been formed for numerous reasons, including:
• being assigned a task or function that does not fit well within the existing departmental structure;
• protecting the agency’s purposes from the influence of both partisan and pressure politics;
• being created outside the departmental structure by accident.
The Independent Executive Agencies
• The independent executive agencies include most of the independent agencies.
• The most important difference between the
independent executive agencies and the 14
executive departments is that they simply do not have Cabinet status.
• Examples of independent executive
agencies include NASA, the General Services
Administration, and the EPA.
• Some independent executive agencies are
far from well-known, such as the Citizens’
Stamp Advisory Committee.
Independent Regulatory Commissions
• The independent regulatory commissions stand out among the independent agencies because they are largely beyond the reach of presidential direction and control.
• Term length of members and staggering of
member appointments keep these commissions
from falling under control of one party.
• The regulatory commissions are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial, meaning that Congress has given them certain legislative-like and judicial-like powers.
Federal Reserve System click the link for video www.youtube.com/watch?v=L0hQfaxYU8k
Federal Reserve System click the link for information www.stlouisfed.org/in-plain-english/introduction
The Government Corporations
• Government corporations are also within the
executive branch and subject to the President’s
direction and control.
• Government corporations were established by
Congress to carry out certain business-like
• There are now over 50 government
corporations, including the U.S. Postal Service,
Amtrak, and the Tennessee Valley Authority.
1. Independent agencies are formed for all of the following reasons
(a) to create an agency immune from the system of checks and balances.
(b) their function pertains to a peculiar or sensitive task.
(c) their function does not fit within the structure of the executive departments.
(d) keeping their function out of the influence of partisan or pressure politics.
2. The U.S. Postal Service is an example of
(a) an independent regulatory commission.
(b) a Cabinet department.
(c) and independent executive agency.
(d) a government corporation.