Practice test click on the following link: www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=cates-a-beautiful-mind-quiz
Practice test click on the following link:www.scribd.com/doc/90731691/Sample-Answer-Key-for-Worksheet-to-Accompany-a-Beautiful-Mind
|Mr. Goudy's Classroom||
Watching a movie called A Beautiful Mind After the movie we will take a test over it.
Practice test click on the following link: www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=cates-a-beautiful-mind-quiz
Practice test click on the following link:www.scribd.com/doc/90731691/Sample-Answer-Key-for-Worksheet-to-Accompany-a-Beautiful-Mind
Click on the following link for vocabulary review: http://quizlet.com/42317931/understanding-psychology-chapter-16-sections-1-5-flash-cards/
Click on the following link for a review test: http://quizlet.com/42317931/test
Glenco link for review: http://glencoe.mheducation.com/sites/0078745179/student_view0/unit6/chapter16/index.html
Individuals with this disorder have persistent rule-breaking, deceitfulness, antagonistic behavior, irresponsibility, lack of remorse and failure to plan ahead. In childhood, they usually have oppositional defiant disorder which develops into conduct disorder in adolescence. Fire-setting and cruelty to animals in childhood/adolescence is common. In adulthood, they often are divorced, have alcohol/drug abuse, anxiety, depression, unemployment, homelessness, and criminal behavior.
Ineffective Therapy: There is no evidence that any psychological or pharmaceutical treatment is effective in improving the core features of this disorder. Psychological treatment in prison often makes this disorder worse. Fortunately, this disorder often slowly improves after age 40.
Antisocial Personality Disorder is a condition characterized by persistent disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Deceit and manipulation are central features of this disorder. For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least 18, and must have had some symptoms of Conduct Disorder (i.e., delinquency) before age 15. This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and very disabling or distressing.
Three or more of the following are required:
In the new, soon to be released, DSM-V diagnostic criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder; the requirement for having a Conduct Disorder before age 15 is dropped. Thus the new DSM-V diagnostic criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder will become almost identical to that of "psychopathy" as proposed by Dr. Robert D. Hare.
A diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (using DSM-IV criteria) has limited utility for making differential predictions of institutional adjustment, response to treatment, and behavior following release from prison. In contrast, the diagnosis of being a psychopath has considerable predictive validity with respect to treatment outcome, institutional adjustment, recidivism and violence (Hare 1991). Dr. Robert D. Hare's "Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)" is the psycho-diagnostic tool most commonly used to assess psychopaths. On this checklist, psychopaths have the majority of the following traits:
The prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder in the general population is about 3% in males and 1% in females. It is seen in 3% to 30% of psychiatric outpatients.
The course of this disorder is chronic. This disorder is usually worse in young adulthood and often improves in middle age.
This disorder is more common among first-degree biological relatives of those with the disorder than in the general population. There is also an increased familial risk for Substance-Related Disorders and Somatization Disorder. Complications:
Individuals with this disorder have an increased risk of dying prematurely by violent means (e.g., suicide, accidents, and homicide). Prolonged unemployment, interrupted education, broken marriages, irresponsible parenting, homelessness, and frequent incarceration are common with this disorder.
Anxiety Disorders, Depressive Disorders, Substance-Related Disorders, Somatization Disorder, Pathological Gambling (and other impulse control disorders), and other Personality Disorders (especially Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic) frequently co-occur with this disorder.
Associated Laboratory Findings:
No laboratory test has been found to be diagnostic of this disorder.
Substance dependence is a drug user's compulsive need to use controlled substances in order to function normally. When such substances are unobtainable, the user suffers from substance withdrawal. In the American Psychological Association (APA) Dictionary of Psychology, psychological dependence is defined as "dependence on a psychoactive substance for the reinforcement it provides." Most times, psychological dependence is classified under addiction. While addictions often include a physiological need or craving for a substance, a psychological dependence is not based on physiology. Rather, it is a "need" for a particular substance based on the mental and psychological affects it creates.
The reward system is partly responsible for the psychological part of drugtolerance. People will often turn to a substance (such as alcohol) or behavior (such as sex) to help alleviate certain negative emotions or increase positive emotions. Psychological dependence begins after the first use, when these emotions are regulated by the substance or behavior, but the result is not sustainable. The "high" of the substance or behavior always fades, often leaving the user feeling generally depressed and dissatisfied, and unable to find pleasure in previously enjoyable activities. This leads to a return to the drug for an additional "fix;" because the person falls back to their initial emotional state after the effects of the substance or behavior wears off, they come to crave the substance or behavioragain. This constant feeling leads to psychological reinforcement,which eventually leads to psychological (and sometimes physiological) dependence. In chronic drug users, gradual tolerance of the substance forces a larger dose to be taken to reach the same effect.
Of the various things that a person can be psychologically dependent on, the most common are nicotine, alcohol, opiates, barbituates, and benzodiazepines. Along with substances, people can also become dependent on activities or behaviors, such as shopping, sex, self-harm, eating, or restricting food. Psychologicaldependence can be equally or more difficult to overcome than physiologicaldependence on a substance, and many choose to enter into a behavioral orsubstance abuse program while attempting to recover.
and PsychosisSchizophrenia Information & Treatment IntroductionBy Michael Bengston, M.D.
Throughout recorded history, the disorder we now know as schizophrenia has been a source of bewilderment. Those suffering from the illness once were thought to be possessed by demons and were feared, tormented, exiled or locked up forever.
In spite of advances in the understanding of its causes, course and treatment, schizophrenia continues to confound both health professionals and the public. It is easier for the average person to cope with the idea of cancer than it is to understand the odd behavior, hallucinations or strange ideas of the person with schizophrenia.
As with many mental disorders, the causes of schizophrenia are poorly understood. Friends and family commonly are shocked, afraid or angry when they learn of the diagnosis. People often imagine a person with schizophrenia as being more violent or out-of-control than a person who has another kind of serious mental illness. But these kinds of prejudices and misperceptions can be readily corrected.
Expectations become more realistic as schizophrenia is better understood as a disorder that requires ongoing -- often lifetime -- treatment. Demystification of the illness, along with recent insights from neuroscience and neuropsychology, gives new hope for finding more effective treatments for an illness that previously carried a grave prognosis.
Schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of unusual behaviors that cause profound disruption in the lives of people suffering from the condition, as well as in the lives of the people around them. Schizophrenia strikes without regard to gender, race, social class or culture.
Delusions & Hallucinations Are Common in SchizophreniaOne of the most obvious kinds of impairment caused by schizophrenia involves how a person thinks. The individual can lose much of the ability to rationally evaluate his or her surroundings and interactions with others. They often believe things that are untrue, and may have difficulty accepting what they see as "true" reality.
Schizophrenia most often includes hallucinations and/or delusions, which reflect distortions in the perception and interpretation of reality. The resulting behaviors may seem bizarre to the casual observer, even though they may be consistent with the schizophrenic's abnormal perceptions and beliefs.
For instance, someone with schizophrenia may act in an extremely paranoid manner -- purchasing multiple locks for their doors, always checking behind them as they walk in public, refusing to talk on the phone. Without context, these behaviors may seem irrational or illogical. But to someone with schizophrenia, these behaviors may reflect a reasonable reaction their false beliefs that others are out to get them or lock them up.
Nearly one-third of those diagnosed with schizophrenia will attempt suicide. About 10 percent of those with the diagnosis will commit suicide within 20 years of the beginning of the disorder. Patients with schizophrenia are not likely to share their suicidal intentions with others, making life-saving interventions more difficult. The risk of depression needs special mention due to the high rate of suicide in these patients. The most significant risk of suicide in schizophrenia is among males under 30 who have some symptoms of depression and a relatively recent hospital discharge. Other risks include imagined voices directing the patient toward self-harm (auditory command hallucinations) and intense false beliefs (delusions).
The relationship of schizophrenia to substance abuse is significant. Due to impairments in insight and judgment, people with schizophrenia may be less able to judge and control the temptations and resulting difficulties associated with drug or alcohol abuse.
In addition, it is not uncommon for people suffering from this disorder to try to "self-medicate" their otherwise debilitating symptoms with mind-altering drugs. The abuse of such substances, most commonly nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and marijuana, impedes treatment and recovery.
The Onset of SchizophreniaThe onset of schizophrenia in most people is a gradual deterioration that occurs in early adulthood -- usually in a person's early 20s. Loved ones and friends may spot early warning signs long before the primary symptoms of schizophrenia occur. During this initial pre-onset phase, a person may seem without goals in their life, becoming increasingly eccentric and unmotivated. They may isolate themselves and remove themselves from family situations and friends. They may stop engaging in other activities that they also used to enjoy, such as hobbies or volunteering.
Warning signs that may indicate someone is heading toward an episode of schizophrenia include:
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is characterized by at least 2of the following symptoms, for at least one month:
MOOD DISORDERS What Are Mood Disorders?
Four basic forms of mood disorders are major depression, cyclothymia (a mild form of bipolar disorder), SAD (seasonal affective disorder) and mania (euphoric, hyperactive, over inflated ego, unrealistic optimism.)
How Common Are Mood Disorders?
About 20% of the U.S. population reports at least one depressive symptom in a given month, and 12% report two or more in a year. A survey conducted in 1992 found rates of major depression reaching 5% in the previous 30 days, 17% for a lifetime. Bipolar disorder is less common, occurring at a rate of 1% in the general population, but some believe the diagnosis is often overlooked because manic elation is too rarely reported as an illness.
The Relationship Between Psychiatric Disorders and Mood Disorders
Depression is a common feature of mental illness, whatever its nature and origin. A person with a history of any serious psychiatric disorder has almost as high a chance of developing major depression as someone who has had major depression itself in the past.
Alcohol, Substance Abuse and DepressionAlcoholism and other forms of drug dependence are also related to depression. Dual diagnosis - substance abuse and another psychiatric disorder, usually a mood disorder - is an increasingly serious psychiatric concern. Whether drug abuse causes depression, depression leads to drug abuse, or both have a common cause, a vicious spiral ensues when addicts use the drugs to relieve symptoms the drugs have caused. Cocaine and other stimulants act on neurotransmitters in the brain’s pleasure center, causing elation that is followed by depression as the effect subsides. Sometimes what appears to be major depression clears up after abstinence from alcohol or drugs. People with serious mood disorders also have twice the average rate of nicotine addiction, and many become depressed when they try to stop smoking.
Personality and Mood DisordersPeople are more easily demoralized by depression and slower to recover if they are withdrawn and unreasonably self-critical or irritable, impulsive, and hypersensitive to loss. Most people with major depression also show some signs of anxiety, and 15-30% have panic attacks. As a biological mechanism for coping with danger, anxiety creates a need for help or protection that may give way to despair if it is disappointed. Chronically anxious people may also medicate themselves with alcohol or drugs that can cause depression.
Depression and Physical IllnessDepression is associated with physical illness as well. Some 25% of hospitalized medical patients have noticeable depressive symptoms and about 5% are suffering from major depression. Chronic medical conditions associated with depression include heart disease, cancer, vitamin deficiencies, diabetes, hepatitis, and malaria. Depression also is a common effect of neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, multiple sclerosis, strokes, and brain tumors. Even moderate depressive symptoms are associated with a higher than average rate of arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and high blood pressure. Depression can mimic medical illness and any illness feels worse to someone suffering from depression.
Video Click on the following link: www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxktavpRdzU
IN CLASS QUESTIONS:
1. In the section-opening excerpt, did the prince fake his symptoms to avoid work
2. What creates the symptoms of somatoform disorders?
3. What do people with a conversion disorder "convert"?
4. What is a sign that someone is suffering from a psychological rather than a physical
5. What is the psychonanalytic explanation for hypochondriasis?
6. How does amnesia affect memory?
7. What psychological function does a dissociative fugue probably serve?
8. In dissociative identity disorder, how do the different identities relate to one another?
9. What childhood experiences are common among people with dissociative identity
10. What psychological function does dissociative identity disorder serve?
Somatoform disorders are mental illnesses that cause bodily symptoms, includingpain. The symptoms can't be traced back to any physical cause. And they are not the result of substance abuse or another mental illness.
People with somatoform disorders are not faking their symptoms. The pain and other problems they experience are real. The symptoms can significantly affect daily functioning.
Doctors need to perform many tests to rule out other possible causes before they diagnose a somatoform disorder.
A diagnosis of a somatoform disorder can create a lot of stress and frustration for patients. They may feel unsatisfied that there's no known explanation for their symptoms. Stress often leads patients to become more worried about their health. This creates a vicious cycle that can persist for years.
Types and Symptoms of Somatoform DisordersSymptoms and their severity vary depending on the type of somatoform disorder. There are several types of somatoform disorders:
Somatization disorder. This is also known as Briquet's syndrome. Patients with this type have a long history of medical problems that starts before the age of 30.
The symptoms involve several different organs and body systems. The patient may report a combination of:
Undifferentiated somatoform disorder. This is a less specific version of somatization disorder. A diagnosis requires that a person have one or more physical complaints of unexplained symptoms for at least six months.
Hypochondriasis. People with this type are preoccupied with concern they have a serious disease. They may believe that minor complaints are signs of very serious medical problems. For example, they may believe that a common headache is a sign of a brain tumor.
Body dysmorphic disorder. People with this disorder are obsessed with -- or may exaggerate -- a physical flaw. Patients may also imagine a flaw they don't have.
The worry over this trait or flaw is typically constant. It may involve any part of the body. Patients can be obsessed with things such as wrinkles, hair, or the size or shape of the eyes, nose, or breasts.
Conversion disorder. This condition strikes when people have neurological symptoms that can't be traced back to a medical cause. For example, patients may have symptoms such as:
Pain disorder. People who have pain disorder typically experience pain that started with a psychological stress or trauma.
For example, they develop an unexplained, chronic headache after a stressful life event.
Pain is the focus of the disorder. But psychological factors are believed to play a role in the perception and severity of the pain.
People with pain disorder frequently seek medical care. They may become socially isolated and experience problems with work and family life.
Somatoform disorder not otherwise specified. People with this type may have conditions that have features of other somatoform disorders. But they do not meet the full criteria for any other diagnosis.
Conditions that fall into this category include pseudocyesis. This is the mistaken belief of being pregnant based on other signs of pregnancy, including an expanding abdomen; feeling labor pains, nausea, breast changes, fetal movement; breast changes; and cessation of the menstrual period.
There are four major dissociative disorders defined in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS), published by the American Psychiatric Association:
If you or someone you love has significant, unexplained memory loss or experiences a dramatic change in behavior when under stress, talk to a doctor. A chronic sense that your identity or the world around you is blurry or unreal also may be caused by a dissociative disorder. Effective treatment is available for these conditions. Seek medical help.
If you or your child experiences abuse or another traumatic situation, talk to a doctor as soon as possible. Early intervention and counseling may help prevent the formation of dissociative disorders.
There are many types of anxiety disorders that include panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. Many people feel anxious, or nervous, when faced with a problem at work, before taking a test, or making an important decision. Anxiety disorders, however, are different. They can cause such distress that it interferes with a person's ability to lead a normal life.
An anxiety disorder is a serious mental illness. For people with anxiety disorders, worry and fear are constant and overwhelming, and can be crippling.
What Are the Types of Anxiety Disorders?There are several recognized types of anxiety disorders, including:
Symptoms vary depending on the type of anxiety disorder, but general symptoms include:
Like certain illnesses, such as diabetes, anxiety disorders may be caused by chemical imbalances in the body. Studies have shown that severe or long-lasting stress can change the balance of chemicals in the brain that control mood. Other studies have shown that people with certain anxiety disorders have changes in certain brain structures that control memory or mood. In addition, studies have shown that anxiety disorders run in families, which means that they can be inherited from one or both parents, like hair or eye color. Moreover, certain environmental factors -- such as a trauma or significant event -- may trigger an anxiety disorder in people who have an inherited susceptibility to developing the disorder.
How Common Are Anxiety Disorders?Anxiety disorders affect about 19 million adult Americans. Most anxiety disorders begin in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. They occur slightly more often in women than in men, and occur with equal frequency in whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics.
How Are Anxiety Disorders Diagnosed?If symptoms of an anxiety disorder are present, the doctor will begin an evaluation by asking you questions about your medical history and performing a physical exam. Although there are no lab tests to specifically diagnose anxiety disorders, the doctor may use various tests to look for physical illness as the cause of the symptoms.
If no physical illness is found, you may be referred to a psychiatrist or psychologist, mental health professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Psychiatrists and psychologists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to evaluate a person for an anxiety disorder.
The doctor bases his or her diagnosis on the patient's report of the intensity and duration of symptoms -- including any problems with daily functioning caused by the symptoms -- and the doctor's observation of the patient's attitude and behavior. The doctor then determines if the patient's symptoms and degree of dysfunction indicate a specific anxiety disorder.
How Are Anxiety Disorders Treated?Fortunately, much progress has been made in the last two decades in the treatment of people with mental illnesses, including anxiety disorders. Although the exact treatment approach depends on the type of disorder, one or a combination of the following therapies may be used for most anxiety disorders:
Anxiety disorders cannot be prevented; however, there are some things you can do to control or lessen symptoms:
Web sites used in class discussion:
General Anxiety: www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/generalized-anxiety-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20360803
Panic Attacks: www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GvcP8ekLNw
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: www.youtube.com/watch?v=hV2DOXhZ9qM
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9CIuKNxek4
OCD and Anxiety Disorders: Crash Course Psychology #29: www.youtube.com/watch?v=aX7jnVXXG5o
How do we draw the line between "NORMAL" and "ABNORMAL"
I. Defining and Identifying Psychological Disorders
A. Deviation From Normality
C. Psychological Health
"illness" vs. "disorder"
II. The Problem of Classification
(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th revision)
1. Used to classify current symptoms into explicitly defined
categories (see page 452)
2. Used to describe developmental disorders and long-
standing personality disorders or maladaptive traits
3. Used to describe physical disorders
4. A measurement of the current stress level at which the
person is functioning
5. Used to describe the highest level of adaptive functioning
present within the past year. (Adaptive functioning refers
to social relations, occupational functioning, and person's
use of leisure time.)
In Class video click the following link: www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuhJ-GkRRQc
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of categorizing people by the DSM-IV?
2. Many people suffer from mild psychological disorders. When do you think it is necessary for a person to seek help?
3. Define psychological disorder.
4. Distinguish between the concepts of normality and abnormality.
Video shown in class on Chapter 16 section 1 (Click the link to watch) www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuhJ-GkRRQc
Click on the following link for review: http://quizlet.com/20867873/d117-understanding-psychology-chapter-15-flash-cards/
Glencoe review page: http://glencoe.mheducation.com/sites/0078745179/student_view0/unit6/chapter15/index.html
Stress and College Students: College life can be very stressful. Sometimes parents, faculty and others tend to idealize their college experience and remember it as that idyllic time when they had few worries or responsibilities. To students currently attending college, however, the process is often stressful and frustrating. The competition for grades, the need to perform, relationships, career choice, and many other aspects of the college environment cause stress.
Before condemning stress outright, we need to understand that stress is only harmful when it is excessive. Much of the stress that we all experience is helpful and stimulating. The challenges of life tend to be stressful and an attempt to avoid stress completely would lead to a rather boring existence. The problem comes when you experience too much stress.
Although some stress reactions are part of deeper and more serious emotional problems, many are not, and can be handled with relatively simple counseling and stress-management techniques. You can use the following guidelines to help manage your stress:
Some people are in a constant state of trying to catch up. They find themselves rushing and hurrying from one activity to another, always racing with the clock and never getting on top of things. Part of this problem, for many students, is not being well organized. Effective time management can help.
Gain Perspective by Discussing ProblemsIt is easy to get caught up in a problem or a narrow view of something you are doing, and to lose perspective and feel that a failure or roadblock is a catastrophe. Discussing your problems with a trusted, empathic friend can allow you to gain new perspective and can allow you to move out of what might seem like an isolated and negative internal world. The act of verbalizing your concerns and putting them together will often help give you a sense of control.
Specific Relaxation TechniquesRelaxation techniques are extremely valuable tools in stress management. Most of the techniques like meditation, self-hypnosis, and deep muscle relaxation work in a similar fashion. They make it possible for you to spend a short period of time in a state of profound relaxation. In this state both the body and the mind are at rest and the outside world is screened out for a period of time. The practice of one of these techniques on a regular basis can provide a wonderfully calming and relaxing feeling that seems to have a lasting effect for many people. Your energy level and ability to cope with the external world are replenished. Practitioners and researchers have reported many positive life effects from the regular practice of one of these techniques.
You may want to take a course or read about one of these techniques. The Counseling Center, as well as various other campus agencies, offer stress management groups. These techniques easy to learn, but can be difficult to fit into your schedule. If you don't have an opportunity to get instruction, just practice sitting quietly for 15 minutes, with no interruptions. Let yourself relax by focusing on something peaceful - a beautiful scene at the beach or in the mountains, for example. Sometimes it is your negative thoughts or worries that create tension. You can practice "thought stopping techniques" and learn how to use positive self-talk to cope with stress. Even simple interruption can help. Stop and take a purposeful 10-minute break. Go for a walk, breathe deeply, call a friend, put on some favorite music. Keep your sense of humor! Remember, you can talk with a counselor to learn more about how to develop these stress-reducing skills.
Clarify Your Values and Develop a Sense of Life MeaningStress is often caused by general unhappiness and a sense of aimlessness or lack of purpose. People sometimes wind up making choices and living life styles that really don't fit them. A student may be studying accounting when he or she really wants to be an artist, or he or she may have a wide circle of friends, but not really have the kind of intimate relationships that feel fulfilling.
Clarifying your values and deciding what you really want out of your life, can help you feel better about yourself and have that sense of satisfaction and centeredness that helps you deal with the stresses of life. This process is, of course, not easy. Most of us are constantly growing and developing our sense of self and our ideas about what we want and how we want to live. A sense of spirituality can help with this. You might find this with an organized religion or it might be a more personal, individual process. It may involve a sense of oneness with nature, or it may be related to the deep satisfaction gained from volunteer work that really helps someone. Although each of us must develop our own sense of well being and spirituality, it does help to talk about these issues with others, as a way of clarifying and challenging our own ideas and beliefs.
Stress at work: Coping with stress is easier when you identify your stress triggers, manage your time well, and take steps to curb job burnout. Nowhere is stress more likely than in the workplace. Twenty-five percent of people say that their job is the primary stressor in their lives. Job stress can affect your professional and personal relationships, your livelihood, and your health. The good news is that you're not powerless. You can learn better ways of coping with stress.
The effects of stress In small doses, stress is a good thing. It can energize and motivate you to deal with challenges. But prolonged or excessive stress — the kind that overwhelms your ability to cope — can take a severe psychological and physical toll. High stress levels have been linked to depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal problems, impaired immune response and cancer.
Your genes, personality and life experiences all influence the way you respond to and cope with stress. Situations and events that are distressing for most people might not bother you in the least. Or, you may be particularly sensitive to even minor stressors. The first step in coping with stress is identifying your stress triggers.
Some causes of stress are obvious — the threat of losing your job, for instance. But small, daily hassles and demands such as a long commute or difficult co-workers also contribute to your stress level. Over time, small, persistent stressors can wreak more havoc than sudden, devastating events do.
Tackle your stress triggers To identify the factors causing you stress, try keeping a stress inventory: For one week write down the situations, events and people who cause you to have a negative physical, mental or emotional response. Give a brief description of the situation. Where were you? Who was involved? Also, describe your reaction. Did you feel frustrated, angry or nervous?
After a week, sit down and look at your stress inventory. Choose one situation to work on using problem-solving techniques. That means identifying and exploring the problem, looking for ways to resolve it, and selecting and implementing a solution.
Suppose, for instance, that you're behind at work because you leave early to pick up your son from school. You might check with other parents to see if your son can ride with them. Or, you might come in early, work through your lunch hour or take work home to catch up. The best way of coping with stress is to try to find a way to change the circumstances that are causing it.
Work overload — feeling you have too much to do — is a common cause of job stress. You may not be able to affect the amount of work you have, but you can use time management to help you be more efficient and feel less under the gun. Try these tips to improve your time management skills and lower your stress level.
Can Stress Kill You?? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzrjEP5MOT4&safe=active&IP=10.17.230.63&CAT=RRATED&USER=IPGROUP&CE=0
Apart from personality traits, people also tend to develop habitual modes and methods of managing stress and coping with upsetting emotions. By and large, these habitual methods do help people to manage and defuse stressful situations they find themselves in, but they are not all equally efficient at this task. Some work better than others. While some really do succeed in helping people to manage upsetting emotion, the lesser quality methods generally end up causing more problems than they solve.
Perhaps not surprisingly, there is a relationship between people's emotional maturity and the sort of coping methods they prefer. Less emotionally mature people tend to prefer rather primitive and often inefficient coping methods , while more mature folks lean towards more sophisticated and more useful methods. The less mature methods also tend to have in common that their use is not premeditated or conscious in nature, but rather fairly reactive, not well thought out, and unconscious. As coping methods increase in maturity and sophistication, they become correspondingly more deliberate and conscious in nature, and also tend to be used more proactively, rather than simply reactively.
The study of coping methods has a long history. The topic was originally described by psychodynamic psychotherapists (including Dr. Freud) who called them defense mechanisms. The defense mechanism literature was largely focused on mental illness and the ways that various primitive mechanisms served largely to maintain serious illness rather than help reduce it. Later, more cognitively oriented researchers began a separate study of coping that focused more on mental health, and ways that mature coping methods could be taught to enhance health. Though some authors suggest that the term defense mechanisms should be reserved for describing primitive, immature coping strategies, and the term "coping methods" for more mature, useful coping efforts, it doesn't really matter what label is used to describe the different coping methods from our perspective; they are all just people's attempts at coping.
The most primitive of the defense mechanisms are considered to be primitive because they fundamentally rely on blatant misrepresentation or outright ignoring of reality in order to function. These mechanisms flourish in situations (and minds) where emotion trumps reason and impulsivity rules the day. Children use them naturally and normally, but then again, children are by definition emotionally immature and not held to a higher standard as are adults. When adults use these methods on a regular basis, it is an indication that their emotional development is at some level delayed.
Coping strategies refer to the specific efforts, both behavioral and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events. Two general coping strategies have been distinguished: problem-solving strategies are efforts to do something active to alleviate stressful circumstances, whereas emotion-focused coping strategies involve efforts to regulate the emotional consequences of stressful or potentially stressful events. Research indicates that people use both types of strategies to combat most stressful events (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). The predominance of one type of strategy over another is determined, in part, by personal style (e.g., some people cope more actively than others) and also by the type of stressful event; for example, people typically employ problem-focused coping to deal with potential controllable problems such as work-related problems and family-related problems, whereas stressors perceived as less controllable, such as certain kinds of physical health problems, prompt more emotion-focused coping.
An additional distinction that is often made in the coping literature is between active and avoidant coping strategies. Active coping strategies are either behavioral or psychological responses designed to change the nature of the stressor itself or how one thinks about it, whereas avoidant coping strategies lead people into activities (such as alcohol use) or mental states (such as withdrawal) that keep them from directly addressing stressful events. Generally speaking, active coping strategies, whether behavioral or emotional, are thought to be better ways to deal with stressful events, and avoidant coping strategies appear to be a psychological risk factor or marker for adverse responses to stressful life events (Holahan & Moos, 1987).
National Geographic: The Science of Stress (in class video):www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZyBsy5SQxqU
Links that may help