IN CLASS VIDEO How to become a memory master www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ebJlcZMx3c
Brain Games video "Memory
The Processes of Memory
-The storage and retrieval of what has
been learned or experienced is memory.
-To recall information, you use three memory processes.
-•The first memory process is encoding–the transforming of information so that the nervous system can process it.
memory: the storage and retrieval of what has been learned or experienced
encoding: the transforming of information so the nervous system can process it
-After information is encoded, it goes through the second memory process, storage.
-This is the process by which information is maintained over a period of time.
-The amount of information stored depends on how much effort was put into encoding the information.
storage:the process by which information is maintained over a period of time
-The third memory process, retrieval, occurs when information is brought to mind from storage.
-•The ease in which information can be retrieved depends on how efficiently it was encoded and stored (as well as on other factors such as genetic background).
retrieval: the process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory
Three Stages of Memory
- Once the senses encode a memory in the brain, the brain must hold on to the input and store it for future reference.
- Psychologists distinguish three types of memory–sensory, short-term, and long-term–each of which has a different function and time span.
In sensory memory, the senses of sight and hearing (among other senses) are able to hold an input for a fraction of a second before it disappears.
Sensory memory serves three functions:
prevents you from being overwhelmed.
gives you some decision time.
allows for continuity and stability in your world
sensory memory: very brief memory storage immediately following initial reception of a stimulus
The things you have in your conscious mind at any one moment are being held in short-term memory.
Short-term memory does not necessarily involve paying close attention.
short-term memory: memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items and in duration by the subject’s active rehearsal
maintenance rehearsal: a system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting
to find meaning in it
chunking: the process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
primacy-recency effect: refers to the fact that we are better able to recall information presented at the beginning
and end of a list.
Semantic memory is our knowledge
of language, including its rules, words,
and meanings; we share that knowledge with other speakers of our language.
•Episodic memory is our memory of
our own life–such as when you woke up this morning.
Declarative memory involves both episodic and semantic memory.
•Procedural memory does not require conscious recollection to have past learning or experiences impact our performance.